Periodontal Specialists – Dr. Herbert Veisman

Periodontal Treatment and Dental Insurance

Many patients ask if dental insurance will cover their necessary dental and periodontal treatment. The answer is: IT DEPENDS!
Most insurance policies have a standard maximum annual allowable expense of $1500 to $2000. In addition, each procedure will be covered anywhere from 50 to 100% of the estimated amount. For example, if you require a couple of gum grafts on two different teeth (say, one in your top jaw, and one in your bottom jaw), then the estimate for the treatment might be $2800 ($1400 per graft). However, if your annual maximum is $1500 and each procedure is covered at 50%, then your total reimbursement per graft will be $700, or a total of $1400 for both. Since the total estimate is for $2800, you will receive $1400 from the insurance company you will have to pay the additional $1400 out of pocket.
It is important to understand that in Ontario (and most Canadian provinces) it is illegal for a dentist to write off the difference between the total estimate fee and the amount to be reimbursed by your insurance company. Also, it is illegal and fraudulent to send a CLAIM to an insurance company for treatment that has not already been completed.

Tooth Extraction and Immediate Dental implant

In most cases, if you need to have a tooth extracted, a dental implant usually can be placed  right away, and at time, a cap (crown) or bridge can be placed on the same day (depending on how strong you jaw bone is).
Teeth need to be extracted if you have advanced gum disease, trauma (ie. accident), broken tooth beyond repair, failed root canal or abscess (infection). If the infection is too complex, then the tooth will be extracted but a bone graft needs to be completed first. Then, after four months, a dental implant can then be placed. The crown (cap) can then be placed either on the same day or two to three months later (depending on bone strength).
The Dental Implant protocol is:
1. Extraction of hopeless tooth-Immediate dental implant if no infection in socket
2. Extraction of hopeless tooth-Bone graft first-Wait four months-dental implant-Wait three months-Cap (crown)
For more information, call our office at 416-225-9910

GUM DISEASE SYMPTOMS

Who gets gum disease?

People usually don’t show signs of gum disease until they are in their 30s or 40s. Men are more likely to have gum disease than women. Although teenagers rarely develop periodontitis, they can develop gingivitis, the milder form of gum disease. Most commonly, gum disease develops when plaque is allowed to build up along and under the gum line.

How do I know if I have gum disease?

Symptoms of gum disease include:

  • Bad breath that won’t go away
  • Red or swollen gums
  • Tender or bleeding gums
  • Painful chewing
  • Loose teeth
  • Sensitive teeth
  • Receding gums or longer appearing teeth

Any of these symptoms may be a sign of a serious problem, which should be checked by a dentist. At your dental visit the dentist or hygienist should:

  • Ask about your medical history to identify underlying conditions or risk factors (such as smoking) that may contribute to gum disease.
  • Examine your gums and note any signs of inflammation.
  • Use a tiny ruler called a “probe” to check for and measure any pockets. In a healthy mouth, the depth of these pockets is usually between 1 and 3 millimeters. This test for pocket depth is usually painless.

GUM DISEASE PREVENTION

PREVENTING PERIODONTAL DISEASE

Close up of woman flossing
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is caused when bacteria in plaque (a sticky, colorless film that forms in the mouth) builds up between the gums and teeth. When the bacteria begin to grow, the gums surrounding the tooth can become inflamed.
If left untreated, this inflammation can cause the gums and supporting bone structure to deteriorate. This can lead to gum recession or even tooth loss. In addition, research has shown that gum disease may be associated with other diseases, such as diabetes and heart disease.
Luckily, periodontal disease can be preventable. Adding these habits to your daily routine can help.
Brush your teeth. Brushing after meals helps remove food debris and plaque trapped between your teeth and gums. Don’t forget to include your tongue, bacteria loves to hide there.
Floss. Flossing at least once a day helps remove food particles and plaque between teeth and along the gum line that your toothbrush can’t quite reach.
Swish with mouthwash. Using a mouthwash can help reduce plaque and can remove remaining food particles that brushing and flossing missed.
Know your risk. Age, smoking, diet and genetics can all increase your risk for periodontal disease. If you are at increased risk, be sure to talk with your dental professional.
See a periodontist. Get an annual comprehensive periodontal evaluation (CPE) from a dental professional. A CPE looks at your teeth, plaque level, gums, bite, bone structure and other risk factors for periodontal disease. Identifying symptoms of gum disease early is key to protecting your teeth and gums.
 

MEN AND GUM DISEASE

GUM DISEASE AND MEN

Research has found that periodontal disease is higher in men (56.4 percent) than in women (38.4 percent). This may be because men are less likely to go to the dentist or because men have worse indicators of periodontal health than women, including higher incidence of dental plaque, tartar, and bleeding on probing. . However, periodontal health for men is extremely important as it may impact a variety of other health factors.

PROSTATE HEALTH

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is an enzyme created in the prostate that is normally secreted in very small amounts. However, when the prostate becomes inflamed, infected, or affected by cancer, PSA levels rise. Research has shown that men with indicators of periodontal disease such as red, swollen or tender gums  as well as prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate) have higher levels of PSA than men with only one of the conditions. This means that prostate health may be associated with periodontal health, and vice versa.

HEART DISEASE

Research indicates that periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease are associated; having periodontal disease may actually increase your risk of cardiovascular disease. Both diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions, and researchers believe that inflammation is the connection between gum disease and heart disease. Since men are already more likely to develop heart disease than women, maintaining periodontal health is another way to reduce this risk.

IMPOTENCE

Men with periodontal disease, especially those younger than 30 or older than 70, are at increased risk of developing impotence, according to research. Researchers believe that inflammation may be the link between the two conditions; prolonged chronic inflammation (the same type of inflammation that is associated with periodontal disease) can damage blood vessels leading to impotence.

CANCER

Research has found that men with a history of gum disease are 14 percent more likely to develop cancer than men with healthy gums. Specifically, men with periodontal disease may be 49 percent more likely than women to develop kidney cancer, 54 percent more likely to develop pancreatic cancer, and 30 percent more likely to develop blood cancers.
 

WOMEN AND GUM DISEASE

GUM DISEASE AND WOMEN

 
A woman’s periodontal health may be impacted by a variety of factors.

PUBERTY

During puberty, an increased level of sex hormones, such as progesterone and possibly estrogen, causes increased blood circulation to the gums. This may cause an increase in the gum’s sensitivity and lead to a greater reaction to any irritation, including food particles and plaque. During this time, the gums may become swollen, turn red and feel tender.

MENSTRUATION

Occasionally, some women experience menstruation gingivitis. Women with this condition may experience bleeding gums, bright red and swollen gums and sores on the inside of the cheek. Menstruation gingivitis typically occurs right before a woman’s period and clears up once her period has started.

PREGNANCY

Some studies have suggested the possibility of an additional risk factor – periodontal disease. Pregnant women who have periodontal disease may be more likely to have a baby that is born too early and too small. However, more research is needed to confirm how periodontal disease may affect pregnancy outcomes.
All infections are cause for concern among pregnant women because they pose a risk to the health of the baby. The Academy recommends that women considering pregnancy have a periodontal evaluation.

MENOPAUSE AND POST-MENOPAUSE

Women who are menopausal or post-menopausal may experience changes in their mouths. They may notice discomfort in the mouth, including dry mouth, pain and burning sensations in the gum tissue and altered taste, especially salty, peppery or sour.
In addition, menopausal gingivostomatitis affects a small percentage of women. Gums that look dry or shiny, bleed easily and range from abnormally pale to deep red mark this condition. Most women find that estrogen supplements help to relieve these symptoms.

GUM DISEASE AND OTHER PHYSICAL ILLNESSES

GUM DISEASE AND OTHER SYSTEMIC DISEASES

OSTEOPOROSIS

Researchers have suggested that a link between osteoporosis and bone loss in the jaw. Studies suggest that osteoporosis may lead to tooth loss because the density of the bone that supports the teeth may be decreased, which means the teeth no longer have a solid foundation.

RESPIRATORY DISEASE

Research has found that bacteria that grow in the oral cavity can be aspirated into the lungs to cause respiratory diseases such as pneumonia, especially in people with periodontal disease.

CANCER

Researchers found that men with gum disease were 49% more likely to develop kidney cancer, 54% more likely to develop pancreatic cancer, and 30% morelikely to develop blood cancers.

GUM DISEASE AND HEART DISEASE

GUM DISEASE AND HEART DISEASE

HEART DISEASE

DiagramSeveral studies have shown that periodontal disease is associated with heart disease. While a cause-and-effect relationship has not yet been proven, research has indicated that periodontal disease increases the risk of heart disease.
Scientists believe that inflammation caused by periodontal disease may be responsible for the association.
Periodontal disease can also exacerbate existing heart conditions. Patients at risk for infective endocarditis may require antibiotics prior to dental procedures. Your periodontist and cardiologist will be able to determine if your heart condition requires use of antibiotics prior to dental procedures.

STROKE

Additional studies have pointed to a relationship between periodontal disease and stroke. In one study that looked at the causal relationship of oral infection as a risk factor for stroke, people diagnosed with acute cerebrovascular ischemia were found more likely to have an oral infection when compared to those in the control group.

DIABETES AND GUM DISEASE

DIABETES AND PERIODONTAL DISEASE

Diabetic patients are more likely to develop periodontal disease, which in turn can increase blood sugar and diabetic complications.

People with diabetes are more likely to have periodontal disease than people without diabetes, probably because people with diabetes are more susceptible to contracting infections. In fact, periodontal disease is often considered a complication of diabetes. Those people who don’t have their diabetes under control are especially at risk.
Research has suggested that the relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease goes both ways – periodontal disease may make it more difficult for people who have diabetes to control their blood sugar.
Severe periodontal disease can increase blood sugar, contributing to increased periods of time when the body functions with a high blood sugar. This puts people with diabetes at increased risk for diabetic complications.
 

TYPES OF GUM DISEASE AND COMPLICATIONS

Gingivitis

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gingiva, or gums. It is characterized by tender, red, swollen gums that bleed easily and may cause bad breath (halitosis). Gingivitis can be treated by good dental hygiene, proper diet, and stopping smoking. Untreated gingivitis can lead to periodontitis.

Periodontitis

Periodontitis occurs when the gum tissues separate from the tooth and sulcus, forming periodontal pockets. Periodontitis is characterized by:

  • Gum inflammation, with redness and bleeding
  • Deep pockets (greater than 3 mm in depth) that form between the gum and the tooth
  • Loose teeth, caused by loss of connective tissue structures and bone

There are different forms of periodontal disease. They include:
Chronic Periodontitis. Chronic periodontitis is the most common type of periodontitis. It can begin in adolescence but the disease usually does not become clinically significant until people reach their mid-30s.
Aggressive Periodontitis. Aggressive periodontitis is a subtype of chronic periodontitis that can occur as early as childhood. It can lead to severe bone loss by the time patients reach their early 20s.
Disease-Related Periodontitis. Periodontitis can also be associated with a number of systemic diseases, including type 1 diabetes, Down syndrome, AIDS, and several rare disorders of white blood cells.
Necrotizing Periodontal Disease. Necrotizing periodontal disease is an uncommon acute infection of the gum tissue. It is characterized by painful and bleeding gums, bad breath, and rapid onset of pain. If left untreated, necrotizing periodontal disease can spread throughout the facial areas (cheeks, jaw) and cause extensive damage. Necrotizing periodontal disease is usually associated with systemic health conditions such as AIDS or malnutrition.
 

Causes

 
Periodontal disease is caused by plaque, which is formed from harmful bacteria. The mouth is full of bacteria but they tend to be harmless varieties. Periodontal disease usually develops because of an increase in bacteria quantity in the oral cavity and a change in balance of bacterial types from harmless to disease-causing bacteria. These harmful bacteria increase in mass and thickness until they form a sticky film called plaque.
In healthy mouths, plaque actually provides some barrier against outside bacterial invasion. When it accumulates to excessive levels, however, bacterial plaque sticks to the surfaces of the teeth and adjacent gums and causes infection with subsequent swelling, redness, and warmth.
When plaque is allowed to remain in the periodontal area, it transforms into calculus (commonly known as tartar). This material has a rock-like consistency and grabs onto the tooth surface. Tartar is much more difficult to remove than plaque, which is a soft mass. Once tartar has formed, it must be professionally removed by a dental practitioner.
 

Risk Factors

 
Most American adults have some form of gum disease but are unaware of it. The main risk factors for periodontal disease include:

  • Age
  • Smoking or tobacco use
  • Female hormonal changes
  • Illnesses   such as diabetes or HIV/AIDS, and the medications used to treat some conditions
  • Genetic factors

Age

Periodontitis typically occurs as people get older and is most common after age 35.

Lifestyle Factors

Smoking. Smoking is the major preventable risk factor for periodontal disease. Smoking can cause bone loss and gum recession even in the absence of periodontal disease. The risk of periodontal disease increases with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Smoking cigars and pipes carries the same risks as smoking cigarettes.
Substance Abuse. Long-term abuse of alcohol and certain types of illegal drugs (amphetamines) can damage gums and teeth.
Diet. A healthy diet, including eating fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C, is important for good oral health. Malnutrition is a risk factor for periodontal disease.
Stress. Psychological stress can cause the body to release inflammatory hormones that may trigger or worsen periodontal disease.

Female Hormones

Female hormones affect the gums, and women are particularly susceptible to periodontal problems. Hormone-influenced gingivitis appears in some adolescents, in some pregnant women, and is occasionally a side effect of birth control medication.
Menstruation. Gingivitis may flare up in some women a few days before they menstruate, when progesterone levels are high. Gum inflammation may also occur during ovulation. Progesterone dilates blood vessels causing inflammation, and blocks the repair of collagen, the structural protein that supports the gums.
Pregnancy. Hormonal changes during pregnancy can aggravate existing gingivitis, which typically worsens around the second month and reaches a peak in the eighth month. Any pregnancy-related gingivitis usually resolves within a few months of delivery. Because periodontal disease may increase the risk for low-weight infants and cause other complications, it is important for pregnant women to see a dentist.
Menopause.Estrogen deficiency after menopause reduces bone mineral density, which can lead to bone loss. Bone loss is associated with both periodontal disease and osteoporosis (loss of bone density). The hormonal changes associated with menopause can cause dry mouth, which can lead to tooth and gum problems.

Genetic Factors

Periodontal disease often occurs in members of the same family. Genetic factors play a role in making some people more susceptible to periodontal disease.

Medical Conditions Associated with Periodontal Disease

Diabetes. There is a strong association between diabetes (both type 1 and 2) and periodontal disease. Diabetes causes changes in blood vessels, and high levels of specific inflammatory chemicals such as interleukins, that significantly increase the chances of developing periodontal disease.
Heart Disease. Periodontal disease and heart disease share common risk factors (smoking, older age, diabetes) but it is not yet clear if having one condition increases the risk for developing the other (see Complications section of this report).
Other Medical Conditions. A number of medical conditions can increase the risk of developing gingivitis and periodontal disease. They include conditions that affect the immune system such as HIV/AIDS, leukemia, and possibly autoimmune disorders (Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus).
Prescription Medications. Gingival overgrowth can be a side effect of many   drugs including certain types of oral contraceptives, antidepressants, and heart medications. Any drug that has a side effect of dry mouth can increase the risk for gum disease.
If you take a bisphosphonate drug such as alendronate (Fosamax, generic) discuss with your dentist any potential risks from dental procedures (such as extractions and implants) that involve the jawbone. Oral bisphosphanates, which are used to treat osteoporosis, have in rare cases caused osteonecrosis (bone destruction) of the jaw. (Intravenous bisphosphantes, which are used in cancer treatment, are more likely to cause osteonecrosis.) Your dentist or oral surgeon may need to take special precautions when performing dental surgery. In any case, be sure to inform your dentist of all medications you are taking.

Oral Health Risk Factors

Oral Hygiene. Lack of oral hygiene, such as not brushing or flossing regularly, encourages bacterial buildup and plaque formation.
Poorly Contoured Restorations. Poorly contoured restorations (fillings or crowns) that provide traps for debris and plaque can also contribute to periodontitis.
Tooth Structure . Abnormal tooth structure can increase the risk of periodontal disease.
Wisdom Teeth. Wisdom teeth, also called third molars, can be a major breeding ground for the bacteria that cause periodontal disease. Periodontitis can occur in wisdom teeth that have broken through the gum as well as teeth that are impacted (buried). Adolescents and young adults with wisdom teeth should have a dentist check for signs of periodontal disease.
 

Complications

 

Effect on Heart Disease

Cardiologists and periodontists currently encourage each other to monitor both conditions in their patients. Periodontists recommend that patients who have periodontal disease and at least one risk factor for heart disease have an annual medical exam to check their heart health. Cardiologists suggest that patients with atherosclerosis and heart disease have regular periodontal exams.

Effect on Diabetes

Diabetes is not only a risk factor for periodontal disease. Periodontal disease itself can worsen diabetes and make it more difficult to control blood sugar.

Effect on Respiratory Disease

Bacteria that reproduce in the mouth can also be carried into the airways in the throat and lungs, increasing the risks for respiratory diseases such as pneumonia and worsening chronic lung conditions, such as emphysema.